Acculon Energy

Understanding Battery Aging Parameters

Join us this week as we discuss Li-ion Battery Aging Factors & how through understanding these factors we can mitigate risks, optimize performance, & prolong the lifespans of the batteries powering your products!

Contact: Betsy Barry
Communication Manager

Ensuring the safety and longevity of lithium-ion batteries is paramount for their widespread deployment across various industries. From electric vehicles to portable electronics, the functional integrity of these batteries dictates not only performance but also safety. To achieve this, a comprehensive understanding of the aging process of lithium-ion batteries is essential. This entails delving into factors such as calendar aging and cycle aging, both of which significantly impact the battery’s capacity, performance, and overall lifespan.

By unraveling the intricacies of battery aging, we can develop proactive measures to mitigate risks, optimize performance, and prolong the lifespan of lithium-ion batteries.

Aging of Lithium-ion Batteries

Ensuring functional safety in the deployment of batteries requires careful evaluation and testing of each battery’s capacity and health, as well as the development of safety protocols and control systems to mitigate risks. To achieve this, it is crucial to conduct a functional safety evaluation of the battery to accurately predict its health and reduce the risk of failure through preventive maintenance. Knowledge of the state of health (SOH) of the battery is essential in determining the appropriate safety features needed for the intended application.

With respect to the aging parameters, which are crucial factors that impact the performance and lifespan of a battery, there is a lot of variability in the type of battery, the manufacturing process, and the use case conditions. The rate of battery degradation is not linear. The operating environmental conditions, such as temperature, number of cycles, and application, play a huge part over a long period of time. 

As the battery ages, the discharge voltage curve gradually changes from a flat to a steep shape. This change indicates that the voltage of the battery decreases more quickly as it discharges, leading to shorter discharge times. The internal temperature of the battery also increases, which can contribute to cell degradation and capacity loss. The formation of the Solid-Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) reduces the amount of active material (lithium) available in the cell. As a result, the voltage of the cell is also affected, leading to further loss of capacity and performance. Thus, aging parameters play a crucial role in determining the overall performance and lifespan of a battery, and it is important to monitor these parameters closely.

Calendar aging & Cycle aging are important factors to consider when analyzing Li-ion battery performance & safety.

By closely monitoring aging parameters & implementing preventive maintenance strategies, we can enhance the safety, reliability, & efficiency of Li-ion batteries.

Calendar Aging  

Calendar aging refers to the loss of a battery’s capacity and performance that occurs due to the passage of time, regardless of usage. This type of aging is caused by factors such as chemical reactions within the battery, exposure to high temperatures, and gradual changes in the electrodes and electrolytes. It is important to consider the calendar age of a battery when deciding whether to use or replace the battery; calendar aging can occur even when a battery is not in use.

Cycle Aging

Cycle aging refers to the gradual decline in a battery’s capacity and performance that occurs as a result of repeated charging and discharging cycles. This type of aging is a normal and expected part of the lifecycle of a battery. It is caused by factors such as the wearing away of the active materials in the electrodes, changes in the electrolyte, and the formation of an insulating layer known as the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI). Cycle aging can be accelerated by factors such as high temperatures, high discharge currents, and overcharging. To minimize the effects of cycle aging, it is recommended to use a battery within its recommended temperature range, discharge rate, and charging parameters to avoid overcharging or discharging the battery.

In the realm of lithium-ion batteries, the aging process is multifaceted and shaped by a myriad of variables. From calendar aging induced by the passage of time to cycle aging influenced by charging and discharging cycles, each facet presents unique challenges and opportunities for optimization. By closely monitoring aging parameters and implementing preventive maintenance strategies, we can enhance the safety, reliability, and efficiency of lithium-ion batteries.

As we continue to push the boundaries of battery technology, extending the lifespan of energy storage solutions will mean that batteries go from lasting a couple of years to lasting an entire generation. Through ongoing research, innovation, and collaboration, we can unlock the full potential of lithium-ion batteries while ensuring a sustainable and secure energy future. By embracing the complexities of battery aging, we can pave the way for a greener, more resilient, and more efficient energy ecosystem.